• Cool English

Unit 5: Life at home

Estructura de la oración

* La oración afirmativa en inglés se construye de acuerdo con la siguiente estructura:

Sujeto + Verbo + Objeto Directo

I

eat

apples

You

need

help

We

bought

a car

* En la oración negativa, el auxiliar se sitúa delante del verbo principal:

Sujeto + Auxiliar negación + Verbo + Objeto Directo

I

don´t

eat

apples

You

don´t

need

help

We

didn´t

buy

a car

* En la oración interrogativa, el auxiliar se sitúa al comienzo de la misma:

Auxiliar + Sujeto + Verbo + Objeto Directo ?

Do

I

eat

apples ?

Do

you

need

help ?

Did

we

buy

a car ?

* Otros complementos de la oración (lugar, tiempo, etc.) se suelen situar al final de la misma:

I eat apples at lunch-time

You need help in your job

We bought a car last Friday

* Normalmente, el complemento de lugar va delante del complemento de tiempo:

I eat apples at home at lunch-time

You need help in your job right now

We bought a car in Madrid last Friday

* Cuando hay adverbios en las oraciones, éstos se suelen situar delante del verbo en las formas simples, y entre el auxiliar y el verbo principal en las formas compuestas (hay numerosas excepciones):

I always eat apples at home

I have always eaten apples at home

You never need help

You have never needed help

Ejercicios: Ordenar correctamente

You, a beer, drink

_________________________

Drive, a car, we

_________________________

Don´t, coffee, you, like ?

_________________________

We, this book, like, don´t

_________________________

He, in his bedroom, music, listen

My homework, I, do, always

_________________________

You, to Paris, in June, go

_________________________

She, the beach, like, doesn't

_________________________

They, a car, in Madrid, bought

_________________________

Never, I, football, play

_________________________

ORDEN DE LOS COMPLEMENTOS DE LA ORACIÓN

I am always singing a song very well in the Church on Saturday

S V.A. Adv Fr. V.P. CD./CI. CC.M/I/C/… CC. L. CC. T.


Vocabulario


Make my bed, tidy my room, do the washing up, empty the rubbish bin, lay the table, look after my brothers and sisters, housework.Went, said, gave, had, got, made, tidied, did, First, then, next, finally.I’ve got a(n) stomach ache, headache, earache, backache, toothache.Collected, cleaned, pumped, turned, used, started, reservoir, water treatment plant, safe, underground, tap, drain, sewage, sewer, cycle, use it for… ing.

Adverbs (adverbios)

* Muchos adverbios en inglés se forman añadiendo la terminación "-ly" al adjetivo:

Intelligent

(adjetivo)

Inteligente

Intelligently

(adverbio)

Inteligentemente

Bad

(adjetivo)

Malo

Badly

(adverbio)

Malamente

* En la formación de estos adverbios, si el adjetivo finaliza en "-y", esta se cambia por "-i" y se añade la terminación "-ly":

Happy

Happily

Merry

Merrily

Funny

Funnily

* Los adverbios se colocan normalmente en la oración en el siguiente orden, aunque hay otras posibilidades:

* Adverbios de modo: se sitúan detrás del verbo, o detrás del complemento si lo hubiera.

He answered the questions perfectly

We worked intensively

* Adverbios de lugar: se sitúan detrás del verbo, o detrás del complemento si lo hubiera.

He went upstairs

I placed the table outside

* Adverbios de tiempo: se sitúan al principio o al final de la oración.

Tomorrow he will finish the work

He arrived very soon

* Adverbios de frecuencia: se sitúan delante del verbo, o entre el auxiliar y el verbo principal en las formas compuestas. Con el verbo "to be" se sitúan detrás del mismo.

He is always in the office

We have frequently been in Paris

She usually comes to this bar

* Adverbios de grado: se colocan delante del verbo.

He completely knew the problem

We hardly play tennis


Ejercicios:

El juega muy bien al fútbol

He play football ........

Nosotros vamos al cine muy a menudo

We ........ go to the cinema

Ella habla inglés perfectamente

She speaks english ........

Tu apenas ves la tele

You ....... watch TV

El doctor trabaja intensamente

The doctor works ........

Últimamente no me encuentro bien

........ I don't feel well

El trabaja todos los días

He works ........

Nosotros hicimos el examen regular

We did the exam ........

Ella llegó tarde a la cita

She arrive to the meeting ........

Mañana el niño comienza sus clases

........ the boy start his class

Unit 4: Past Time

Verbos irregulares

Lista de verbos irregulares En la siguiente lista se incluyen todos los verbos irregulares ingleses. En ella se recoge el infinitivo y el presente (ambos tienen la misma forma, salvo que el infinitivo va precedido de la partícula "to"), así como el pasado simple y el participio. En algunos casos, el verbo tiene dos posibles formas en el pasado o en el futuro que aparecen indicadas. En otros casos, el verbo no tiene infinitivo (son algunos verbos modales y en la tabla aparecen sin partícula "to"). Estos verbos no siguen una regla determinada, por lo que hay que aprenderlos de memoria. Al ser numerosos, entendemos que lo más práctico es irlos estudiando poco a poco (algunos de ellos apenas se utilizan).

Infinitivo / Presente

Forma pasada

Participio

Significado

To abide

abode

abode

soportar

To arise

arose

arisen

surgir

To awake

awoke / awaked

awoken / awaked

despertar

To be

was

been

ser / estar

To bear

bore

borne / born

aguantar

To beat

beat

beaten

golpear

To become

became

become

llegar a ser

To befall

befell

befallen

ocurrir

To beget

begot

begotten

procrear

To begin

began

begun

empezar

To behold

beheld

beheld

observar

To bend

bent

bent

doblar

To bereave

bereaved

bereaved / bereft

estar afligido

To beseech

besought

besought

preguntar con insistencia

To bet

betted / bet

betted / bet

apostar

To bid

bade

bidden

ordenar

To bid

bid

bid

pujar

To bind

bound

bound

atar

To bite

bit

bitten

morder

To bleed

bled

bled

sangrar

To blow

blew

blown

soplar

To break

broke

broken

romper

To breed

bred

bred

engendrar

To bring

brought

brought

traer

To broadcast

broadcast

broadcast

retransmitir

To build

built

built

construir

To burn

burned / burnt

burned / burnt

quemar

To burst

burst

burst

explotar

To buy

bought

bought

comprar

Can

could

be able

poder

To cast

cast

cast

arrojar / lanzar

To catch

caught

caught

coger

To chide

chid

chidden

regañar

To choose

chose

chosen

elegir

To cleave

clove / cleft

cloven / cleft

cortar / romper

To cling

clung

clung

agarrarse

To clothe

clothed / clad

clothed / clad

vestir

To come

came

come

venir

To cost

cost

cost

costar

To creep

crept

crept

deslizarse con sigilo

To crow

crowed / crew

crowed

cantar

To cut

cut

cut

cortar

To dare

dared / durst

dared / durst

desafiar

To deal

dealt / delt

dealt / delt

tratar con

To dig

dug

dug

cavar

To do

did

done

hacer

To draw

drew

drawn

dibujar

To dream

dreamed / dreamt

dreamed / dreamt

soñar

To drink

drank

drunk

beber

To drive

drove

driven

conducir

To dwell

dwelled / dwelt

dwelled / dwelt

habitar

To eat

ate

eaten

comer

To fall

fell

fallen

caer

To feed

fed

fed

alimentar

To feel

felt

felt

sentir

To fight

fought

fought

luchar

To find

found

found

encontrar

To flee

fled

fled

escapar

To fling

flung

flung

arrojar

To fly

flew

flown

volar

To forbear

forbore

forborne

desistir

To forbid

forbade

forbidden

prohibir

To forget

forgot

forgotten

olvidar

To forgive

forgave

forgiven

perdonar

To forsake

forsook

forsaken

renunciar a algo

To freeze

froze

frozen

helar(se)

To get

got

got

coger

To gild

gilded / gilt

gilded / gilt

dorar

To gird

girded / girt

girded / girt

sujetar con cinturón

To give

gave

given

dar

To go

went

gone

ir

To grind

ground

ground

moler

To grow

grew

grown

crecer

To hang

hanged / hung

hanged / hung

colgar

To have

had

had

haber / tener

To hear

heard

heard

oír

To hew

hewed

hewed / hewn

cortar con hacha

To hide

hid

hidden

esconder

To hit

hit

hit

golpear

To hold

held

held

sostener

To hurt

hurt

hurt

herir

To keep

kept

kept

mantener

To kneel

knelt

knelt

arrodillarse

To knit

knit

knit

tejer

To know

knew

known

saber

To lay

laid

laid

colocar

To lead

led

led

guiar

To lean

leaned / leant

leaned / leant

inclinar

To leap

leaped / leapt

leaped / leapt

brincar

To learn

learned / learnt

learned / learnt

aprender

To leave

left

left

dejar

To lend

lent

lent

prestar

To let

let

let

permitir

To lie

lay

lain

echarse

To light

lighted / lit

lighted / lit

encender

To lose

lost

lost

perder

To make

made

made

hacer

May

might

----

poder

To mean

meant / ment

meant / ment

significar

To meet

met

met

encontrar(se)

To mow

mowed

mowed / mown

segar / cortar

Must

had to

----

deber

Ought

----

----

deber

To pay

paid

paid

pagar

To put

put

put

poner

To read

read / red

read / red

leer

To rend

rent

rent

alquilar

To rid

rid

rid

eliminar

To ride

rode

ridden

montar (a caballo)

To ring

rang

rung

sonar

To rise

rose

risen

subir

To run

ran

run

correr

To saw

sawed

sawed / sawn

serrar

To say

said

said

decir

To see

saw

seen

ver

To seek

sought

sought

buscar

To sell

sold

sold

vender

To send

sent

sent

enviar

To set

set

set

poner

To sew

sewed

sewed / sewn

coser

To shake

shook

shaken

agitar

Shall

should

----

(auxiliar futuro)

To shear

sheared / shore

sheared / shorn

esquilar

To shed

shed

shed

perder (hojas)

To shine

shone

shone

brillar

To shoe

shoed / shod

shoed / shod

herrar

To shoot

shot

shot

disparar

To show

showed

showed / shown

mostrar

To shrink

shrank

shrunk

encoger

To shut

shut

shut

cerrar

To sing

sang

sung

cantar

To sink

sank

sunk

hundir

To sit

sat

sat

sentarse

To slay

slew

slain

matar

To sleep

slept

slept

dormir

To slide

slid

slid

resbalar

To sling

slung

slung

lanzar (con fuerza)

To slink

slunk

slunk

deslizarse con sigilo

To slit

slit

slit

cortar

To smell

smelled / smelt

smelled / smelt

oler

To smite

smote

smitten

golpear

To sow

sowed

sowed / sown

sembrar

To speak

spoke

spoken

hablar

To speed

speeded / sped

speeded / sped

acelerar

To spell

spelled / spelt

spelled / spelt

deletrear

To spend

spent

spent

gastar

To spill

spilled / spilt

spilled / spilt

derramar

To spin

spun

spun

dar vueltas

To spit

spat

spat

escupir

To split

split

split

dividir

To spread

spread

spread

extender

To spring

sprang

sprung

saltar

To stand

stood

stood

levantarse

To steal

stole

stolen

robar

To stick

stuck

stuck

hincar

To sting

stung

stung

picar

To stink

stank / stunk

stunk

oler mal

To strew

strewed

strewed / strewn

diseminar

To stride

strode

stridden

andar a zancadas

To strike

struck

struck

golpear

To string

strung

strung

colgar algo

To strive

strove

striven

esforzarse

To swear

swore

sworn

jurar

To sweep

swept

swept

barrer

To swell

swelled

swelled / swollen

hinchar

To swim

swam

swum

nadar

To swing

swung

swung

balancearse

To take

took

taken

coger

To teach

taught

taught

enseñar

To tear

tore

torn

rasgar

To tell

told

told

decir

To think

thought

thought

pensar

To thrive

thrived / throve

thrived / thriven

prosperar

To throw

threw

thrown

tirar

To thrust

thrust

thrust

clavar

To tread

trod

trodden / trod

pisar

To understand

understood

understood

comprender

To undertake

undertook

undertaken

acometer

To wake

waked / woke

waked / woken

despertarse

To wear

wore

worn

usar

To weave

wove

woven

tejer

To weep

wept

wept

llorar

To wet

wetted / wet

wetted / wet

mojar

Will

would

----

(auxiliar futuro)

To win

won

won

ganar

To wind

wound

wound

serpentear

To wring

wrung

wrung

retorcer

To write

wrote

written

escribir


VOCABULARIO

Clever, silly, cruel, kind, fat, thin, poor, rich, Playing team sports, acting in plays,

playing in an orchestra, going on school trips, doing archery, using a video

camera, survey, go running. Football player, archer, tennis player, kitesurfer,

racing driver, cyclist, snowboarder, shoot, arrow, drive cars, cycle, snowboard,

archery, cycling, car racing, running, bat, bow and arrow, snowboard. Let’s…,

Good idea!, Britain, instead.